Many of us in the penetration testing world have come to love Benjamin Delpy’s (blog.gentilkiwi.com) mimikatz/kiwi modules which were ported to Metasploit by OJ Reeves and incorporated into the meterpreter shell. Among other capabilities, one of the most impactful features of these modules was the ability to extract a Windows user’s clear text password from the WDigest provider.
When Microsoft released Windows 8.1, they added some security features that effectively removed the ability of tools like mimikatz or WCE to dump clear text credentials from LSA memory.
Microsoft then backported those fixes in a security update (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2871997) for Windows systems prior to 8.1. However, because WDigest is used by many products (e.g. IIS), Microsoft left the Wdigest provider enabled which is why our mimikatz/kiwi module can still obtain clear text passwords prior to Windows 8.1
Windows 8.1 introduced a registry setting that allows for disabling the storage of the user’s logon credential in clear text for the WDigest provider.
Although the entry does not appear in the Windows 8.1 registry, the default setting for this DWORD value in 8.1 is “0” meaning that 8.1 does not store logon credentials in clear text in LSA memory for this SSP.
KB2871997 backported this registry setting to earlier Windows versions. When you install the hotfix, the registry setting will also not appear in earlier versions. These versions < 8.1 will default to “1” for the “UseLogonCredential” DWORD value.
So what happens on a Windows 8.1 system when we try to obtain the clear text password via a meterpreter shell using the mimikatz or kiwi modules?
The kiwi module is unable to obtain the clear text passwords from LSA memory.
But since we have administrative access, let’s change the registry setting by explicitly setting it to 1 in a Windows shell.
(reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\WDigest /v UseLogonCredential /t REG_DWORD /d 1)
We refresh the regedit window to see the new value of “1” for UseLogonCredential.
Now, all we have to do is try to force, or wait for the user to either lock their screen or log off and then subsequently unlock their screen or log back in.
With the update to the registry, we should now be able to grab the clear text password from LSA memory.
Back in our meterpreter shell, we attempt the creds_wdigest again (might have to get a new meterpreter shell if the user logged off and back on).
This blog post was written by Doug Hiwiller (@dash1b ) of TrustedSec.
Author: David Kennedy
Security expert, keynote speaker, avid gamer and the go-to for protecting companies from threats.