Creating a Malicious Azure AD OAuth2 Application

October 12, 2021

THIS POST WAS WRITTEN BY @NYXGEEK I decided to write this blog because I’ve seen a lot of articles mentioning that attackers will use a malicious OAuth web app with Azure AD, but I hadn’t actually seen much in the way of good examples of doing so. I’m sure I will find a dozen fantastic examples…

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Persistence Through Service Workers—Part 2: C2 Setup and Use

October 7, 2021

In Part 1 of this 2-part blog, we provided an overview of service workers and created an appropriate target application to exploit using Shadow Workers. In this blog post we’ll build our C2 server in Digital Ocean and use Shadow Workers to exploit the target application. It is highly recommended to read Part 1 prior…

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Persistence Through Service Workers—Part 1: Introduction and Target Application Setup

October 5, 2021

During a recent discussion about achieving persistence on a web server, someone suggested that I explore using browser service workers. As I began reading about what service workers do, the possibilities for Red Team applications seemed intriguing. But first, I had to find out…what exactly is a service worker? In their efforts to make web…

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Obsidian, Taming a Collective Consciousness

September 7, 2021

The Problem On August 05, 2021, a member of the Conti ransomware group leaked some of the group’s internal playbooks and technical documentation. Irrespective of any details surrounding the leak or its contents, the event itself prompted a more widespread examination of how teams’ maintain their operational playbooks and documentation. A tweet by Mubix came…

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Oh, Behave! Figuring Out User Behavior

August 19, 2021

One topic that has always been of interest to me is how users actually use their computers. While TrustedSec does have the ability to understand a system when we encounter it, there are still mysteries around normal user behavior. Understanding user behavior becomes even more important when attempting to defeat next generation of EDRs that…

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Simple Data Exfiltration Through XSS

May 11, 2021

During a recent engagement, I found a cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability in a legal document management application and created a quick and dirty document exfiltration payload. Unfortunately, this discovery and coding happened on the final day of the engagement (*cough* reporting bonus hacking day), and I didn’t have a chance to actually put the exfiltrated…

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ADExplorer on Engagements

April 27, 2021

ADExplorer is a tool I have always had in my backpack. It can be useful for both offensive and defensive purposes, but in this post, I am going to focus more on its offensive use. The tool itself can be found here: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/downloads/adexplorer A typical scenario I often face on engagements is that I have…

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Azure Application Proxy C2

April 21, 2021

With the ever-tightening defensive grip on techniques like domain fronting and detections becoming more effective at identifying common command and control (C2) traffic patterns, our ability to adapt to different egress methods is being tested. Of course, finding methods of pushing out C2 traffic can be a fun exercise during a Red Team engagement. A…

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Front, Validate, and Redirect

February 16, 2021

In the age of threat hunting, automated mass scanning, and the occasionally curious SOC, properly securing your command and control (C2) infrastructure is key to any engagement. While many setups today include a CDN Domain Front with a custom Nginx or Apache ruleset sprinkled on top, I wanted to share my recipe for success. Fully…

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Injecting Rogue DNS Records Using DHCP

February 2, 2021

During an Internal Penetration Test or Adversarial Attack Simulation (Red Team), TrustedSec will deploy a rogue, Linux-based networking device onto a client’s network. These devices will sometimes obtain an IP address via DHCP and establish an outbound connection wherein we can perform our testing. Every client network is different, but we have noticed that a…

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